Millenarian movements have existed within the Native American community since at least the fifteenth century and culminated in the Ghost Dance movement of the nineteenth century.1 The Ghost Dance originally was a movement focusing on preserving Native American culture; but by 1890, the rapacious
behavior of European settlers led it to become radicalized into an apocalyptic death cult by the Lakota Sioux Nation.2
The movement’s ideology is still relevant to Native Americans today despite the dance not being performed publicly since the 1970’s. However, with the rise in the number of people looking to Native American faith as a personal path to God, the Ghost Dance ideology of the Sioux is being hijacked by the New Age movement and re-radicalized into an environmentalist death cult.
Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry of The Week Magazine argues:
Environmentalism sometimes has a little bit of a whiff of a death cult. It sometimes leans towards an antihuman worldview, one that views the Earth goddess as the only valuable ‘life-form’ and humans as parasites. And it sometimes feels like more of a fundamentalist religion than anything else.3
Interestingly, the New Age Goddess movement, otherwise known as Wicca, appears to be the fastest-growing religion in America according to the Atlantic Magazine.4 Wicca and Native American spirituality have similar beliefs about the relationship shared between humans and nature, thus adding more potential recruits to this ever-growing, environmentalist death cult.
This paper will outline how the Native American views environmental issues, and how the Ghost Dance movement has evolved since the nineteenth century. We will also discuss why the Ghost Dance is not an obsolete ideology and continues to inspire Native Americans. Finally, we will examine how the New Age Movement has hijacked millenarian, Native American prophecies and are using them as an apologetic to further the agenda of the growing international environmentalist death cult.
According to Encyclopedia Britannica:
Millenarianism is the belief that the end of the world is imminent and that a new heaven or new earth will replace the old one. Among the new religions birthed in the United States were the Seventh-day Adventists and the Jehovah’s Witnesses, both the products of millenarian fervor set off in the mid-19th century by William Miller (1782–1849).5
Millenarianism also underlies the New Age movement that arose in the 1970s and ’80s. The New Age movement is an extremely eclectic conglomeration of beliefs and practices that includes channeling, crystal healing, new versions of shamanism, and a variety of therapies and techniques designed to ‘transform’ the individual into a ‘higher consciousness.’ The movement as a whole optimistically presumes that the world has entered, or is on the verge of entering, a ‘New Age’ (sometimes referred to as the ‘Age of Aquarius’) of unprecedented spiritual possibilities.6
In a September 2017 article in Indian Country Today, Chief Arvol Looking Horse, of the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota Nations published a millenarian warning about the impact America is making on Mother Earth.
Look around you. Our Mother Earth is very ill from these violations, and we are on the brink of destroying the possibility of a healthy and nurturing survival for generations to come, our children’s children.7
In our prophecies [sic] it is told that we are now at the crossroads: Either unite spiritually as a global nation, or be faced with chaos, disasters, diseases, and tears from our relatives’ eyes. … I ask you to join me on this endeavor. Our vision is for the peoples of all continents, regardless of their beliefs in the Creator, to come together as one at their Sacred Sites to pray and meditate and commune with one another, thus promoting an energy shift to heal our Mother Earth and achieve a universal consciousness toward attaining Peace.8
The statement, “Either unite spiritually as a global nation, or be faced with chaos, disasters, diseases, and tears…” is startling in that this is exactly what is happening today. Many people are leaving the fundamental elements of the Abrahamic religions and are embracing the Occult. About a quarter of U.S. adults (27%) now say they think of themselves as spiritual but not religious, which is up eight percentage points in five years, according to a 2016 Pew Research Center survey.9
Many of these “spiritual” people consider the Native American faith as their personal path to God. However, in the New Age Movement, there are many paths to God; and no one path is wrong or right. Yet, there is a common theme advanced within this movement that unites all the different paths: the human race and nature have a symbiotic, mutualistic relationship that must remain in balance. New Age spirituality promotes the belief that the human spirit longs for equilibrium—an equilibrium that can
only be achieved when one’s spirit is aligned with nature.
The Rainbow Warrior
The Rainbow Warrior Movement is an example of how people in the New Age Movement are uniting for the environment. Members believe the movement is the fulfillment of the Native American Rainbow Tribe prophecy— a prophecy that is shared not only by American Indians, but also by people across the world. There are different terms for this movement, but the prophecies are similar in noting that they will gather in the Western lands, they will be comprised of people made up of the four races, and they will come together to consolidate the total knowledge of humanity as one.10 We have seen the fulfillment of this with politicians, environmental groups and civil rights groups joining the effort at Standing Rock, including the Black Lives Matter Movement, indigenous leaders from the Amazon Basin of South America, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, the 2016 Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein and her running mate Ajamu Baraka, and many more.11
From Millenarianism to Apocalyptic Death Cults
Religious beliefs vary between Native American tribes, but there is a widespread panentheist belief in a Great Spirit who created the earth and pervades everything. It is linked to animism, which sees kindred spirits in all animals and plants.12 Therefore, Native Americans, like Chief Looking Horse, believe humans have a synergistic relationship with nature; and if the balance of nature is lost, we will be facing a catastrophe of apocalyptic proportions. In order to maintain this balance, sacrifices must be given back to nature before man can take of the land, and plans need to be made to ensure that resources are not depleted.13
Native American Millenarian Movements before the nineteenth century were focused primarily on returning to traditional native ways of life and no longer embracing the ways of the white man.14 However, by the late nineteenth century, the buffalo—a sacred animal and the primary source of food for Native Americans—was almost extinct as a result of the rapacious behavior of European settlers in the West.15
The Ghost Dance apocalyptic Millenarian Movement was a response to this catastrophe and was meant as a source of hope by its founder, Wovoka of the Paiute Nation. Wovoka received this divine revelation from the Great Spirit while under an altered state of consciousness, which he himself had induced during the solar eclipse of 1889.16 The prophecy given states the following:
… the Indian race, living or dead, will soon be reunited upon a regenerated earth, to live a life of aboriginal happiness, forever free from death, disease, and misery.17
Although originally a peaceful religion calling for coexistence with the whites, several years of the prophecy not coming true led to the radicalization of the Ghost Dance Doctrine by the Lakota Sioux Nation.18 By 1890, it became a death cult calling for the extermination of all Europeans. This caused great paranoia within the United States government and the subsequent Wounded Knee Massacre.19
Today the Ghost Dance is no longer performed, except possibly clandestinely, but the ideology remains active in the hearts and minds of Native Americans and especially the Lakota Sioux. We see the embodiment of this ideology in the Standing Rock protests.20
What is concerning, however, is that as America continues to break away from its Christian-Judeo heritage and embraces more and more of the New Age Occult, more people will be experimenting with various forms of altered states of consciousness, which was the foundation of Wovoka’s Ghost Dance movement. We saw this pattern emerge in Standing Rock as we saw people of many faiths participating in other Native American circle dances,21 all of which are meant to induce an ecstatic state of frenzy to reach into the spirit world.22
The Emerging Environmentalist Death Cult
Some among the Native American community and Progressive media perceived the 2016 election of Donald Trump as a huge blow to Native American culture and spirituality. According to Rosalyn LaPier of Harvard Divinity School, historically, indigenous peoples used the natural seasonal cycles of weather, plants and animals as part of their liturgical or religious calendar. The U.S. government made certain Native American religious practices illegal in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Although these policies have since been rescinded, they led to changes in many indigenous practices. Today, Native Americans feel the environmental changes occurring as a result of “climate change” have forced them to modify their religious rituals, and it is becoming a crisis of apocalyptic proportions.23 Furthermore, Trump’s embrace of the oil and gas industry, approval of the Dakota Access Pipeline,
and rollback of federal land protection for Bears Ears National Monument and Grand Staircase-Escalante is seen as just another attempt by the U.S. government to prevent Native Americans from practicing their religion.
Brandan O’Neill, editor of the online magazine spiked, wrote in his article in The Guardian:
… environmentalism is by far the most influential death cult in existence today. It is inculcating in the masses the idea that the end of the world is nigh; that we shall be punished for our sins; that penance is our earthly duty; and that anyone who says or thinks otherwise is a ‘heretic’ or a ‘denier’ who should be held up to public ridicule.24
Trump and those who are associated with his policies are being demonized by the progressive media, but do we really understand the underlying reason for this disdain?
“Climate change denial should be a crime,” declared Mark Hertsgaard in a September 2017 article in The Nation titled “Climate Denialism Is Literally Killing Us.”25 Hertsgaard, The Nation’s environment correspondent and investigative editor, is just one of a growing number of people in the Environmentalist Movement who believe “murder is murder” and “we should punish it as such.”
Has the Environmentalist Movement been Hijacked by the New Age?
The radicalization of the Environmentalist Movement by individuals such as Hertsgaard and groups like Greenpeace begs the question of how we got here. Is Native American spirituality and the Ghost Dance ideology to blame? Richard White (Stanford professor specializing in Native American History) argues that it is presumptuous to make all Native Americans synonymous with “ecology.”26 Native American environmentalism must be studied in the context of the late nineteenth century. Otherwise Native American concerns are trivialized to conform to modern attitudes.
In many Native American cosmologies, all life was the result of the cosmic union between Mother Earth and Father Sky. Therefore, meddling with the future of other beings was serious business. Many rituals were performed before any hunting took place and often sacrifices were made to be reclaimed by the powers of the sun.27 The balance between nature and man needed to be carefully maintained. Native Americans believe marketbased/capitalist economic systems of the European settlers led to
socio-political power struggles of the nineteenth century, which subsequently led to the imbalance of this relationship between man and nature.28
The main focus of Native American concerns at that time was the total disregard for the conservation of the sacred buffalo by European settlers. However, by the mid-twentieth century, as more and more people began to embrace native spirituality, the Ghost Dance began to appeal to the Counter-culture Movement, moved beyond a conservationist focus, and became a symbol of rebellion against the U.S. government and its environmental policies.
However, many Native American fundamentalists look at the New Age Movement as “culturicide,” a term coined in Indian country to mean “the systematic destroying of cultural value on the basis of ethnicity, religion, political beliefs, social status, or other particularities.”29 In fact, at a 1993 international gathering of US and Canadian Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota Nations, about 500 representatives from 40 different tribes and bands of the Lakota unanimously passed a “Declaration of War Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality.”30 In contrast to the syncretism* of the New Age, the “right” religion for you is determined by your nationality in Native American life.31
Many of the Lakota Sioux hate the Rainbow Warrior Movement referred to earlier in this article. Every year the Rainbow Family of Light has held love fest gatherings in the Black Hills of South Dakota; thereby, desecrating the sacred land with 5,000 to 20,000 hippies who dig trench latrines, fire pits, and kitchens. These people see themselves as Native Americans despite not understanding the Native American faith.32
The Rainbow Warrior Movement is one example of how the New Age Movement has hijacked Native American prophecies; but as a bunch of ragtag hippies, the movement shouldn’t be of great concern to Christians. Rather, it’s the more mainstream organizations, who legitimately study and practice under Native American religious leaders, that warrant more investigation. These groups include the Center for Planetary Culture and the Theosophical Society.
Philosophical Transitions in Environmental Science: From Christianity to Psychedelics and Catalepsy
Unlike Hertsgaard, the Center for Planetary Culture and the Theosophical Society are not as openly visceral in their disdain for climate-change deniers, but their philosophy is certainly contributing to the power of the global environmentalist death cult. They are giving a new religious perspective to the scientific analyses of man’s supposed impact on the environment. Many of the first scientists—like Kepler, Newton, and Bacon—were strong Christians and looked at science and human life through the lens of truth in the Bible. During the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, however, more materialistic philosophies were applied to science and led to a subsequent devaluation of human life. Since the 1960’s, the Counter-culture Movement and its associated spirituality has become more influential in society’s view of the environment and in governmental legislation.
Center for Planetary Culture
Daniel Pinchbeck, who founded the Center for Planetary Culture, is a perfect example of this transition. Pinchbeck’s parents were deeply rooted in the New York counter-culture of the 1950s and 1960s33, and he routinely takes the psychedelic, tryptamine-brew ayahuasca as part of his religious rituals.34 Ayahuasca, which originates from the Amazon basin and has similar properties to Native American peyote, is used to enter into an altered state of consciousness so as to reach the spirit world for esoteric knowledge. However, it can cause vicious bouts of vomiting, diarrhea, and delirium; thereby, making one more susceptible to confusion and hallucinations.35 But to Pinchbeck, the materialism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has caused the world to forfeit “intuitive aspects of it’s being;” thereby suggesting that ayahuasca is the ultimate pathway to gnosis.36
According to Penguin Random House Publishing, Pinchbeck has written for many publications, including Esquire, The New York Times Magazine, The Village Voice, and Rolling Stone. In 1994, he was chosen by The New York Times Magazine as one of “Thirty Under Thirty” destined to change our culture through his literary magazine Open City.37 In addition to this, Pinchbeck has written many influential books such as 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl, which chronicles Mayan and Hopi Indian prophecies.
According to the society and culture website Ancient Origins:
… the Hopi Indians believe that we have suffered three previous world cataclysms. The First World was destroyed by fire—a comet, asteroid strike, or a number of volcanic eruptions. The Second World was destroyed by ice—a great Ice Age. As recorded by many cultures around the globe, a tremendous deluge destroyed the Third World. These three global destructions were not the result of merely random earth changes or astrophysical phenomena but of humankind’s disregard both for Mother Earth and for the spiritual dictates of the Creator.38
This would suggest that the Hopi Indians and those that believe in their prophecies do not view the cyclical behavior of global temperature as a natural phenomenon. Their religious perspective has determined their worldview; and, therefore, any discussions initiated by the Christian believer regarding the environment must be tailored to this point.
Interestingly, former Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations Robert Muller was considered an elder within the Hopi Nation before his death in 2010. Muller was the first to allow a Native American Nation (the Hopi) to speak at the U.N.,39 and he used their prophecies as an apologetic to further the agenda of his religious environmentalism. But why did he embrace their prophecies? An examination of his philosophical and religious background in Theosophy will explain this.
Theosophy is a religion and a form of western esotericism. It was established in the United States during the late nineteenth century by Russian émigré Helena Blavatsky, and it draws its beliefs largely from Blavatsky’s writings.40 Alice Bailey was one of the most influential members of Blavatsky’s Theosophical Society41 and greatly influenced Muller. In fact, within Muller’s 1982 book New Genesis, the chapter heading “The Reappearance of the Christ” was taken directly from Alice Bailey’s book of the same name. But Bailey’s “Cosmic Christ” is not the Christ of the Bible; and, in fact, those familiar with Bailey’s work know her books were all directly channeled from the spirit world through a “Tibetan spirit-guide” named “Djwhal Khul.”42
Muller was known by some as “the philosopher of the United Nations”43 and based his Global Education and World Core Curriculum initiative on the teachings set forth in the books of Alice Bailey who channeled the Tibetan spirit-guide Djwhal Khul.44 Bailey taught that the “World Spiritual Teacher” (the Buddha of the future and the Jesus of the past—the “Maitreya”) would soon appear and lead the world into the Age of Aquarius; and it was the task of her disciples to “prepare the way for His imminent appearance.”45
Unfortunately, Muller used his Catholic mystical practices of Contemplative Prayer to induce an altered state of consciousness to gain further esoteric messages. In his 1985 book Most of All, They Taught Me Happiness, Muller states:
… prayer, meditation, and the silent contemplation of nature, reborn each day under the sun’s glory, bring us in direct communion with God and the universe.46
Here we see how Muller integrated his Catholic upbringing into a worship of nature by following the panentheist belief that God permeates all of nature. Muller’s identification with “Catholicism” and “Christianity” is ultimately empty and very deceptive. He had more in common with the religious beliefs of the Hopi Indians than he ever did with mainline Christianity.
The Evolution of Radicalized Native Millenarian Movements and the New EcoMarxist Frontier
Radicalized, native, apocalyptic Millenarian Movements in the late nineteenth century were primarily focused on eradicating the white man. However, the twentieth century’s fusion of Native American spirituality with Buddhism, under the umbrella of the New Age, has caused native millenarianism to evolve into a global environmentalist death cult that calls for the eradication of climate-change deniers. These two religions are considered Earth religions, and they are united around the belief that God
permeates nature with humanity being an integral part of nature.
Luckily, globalist organizations like the United Nations do not have the power to enforce worldwide, climate-change regulations. This is most likely because they do not control a global currency. However, as Marxist groups such as the Antifa (short for Anti-fascist) gain more and more influence within the counter-culture, we can expect an EcoMarxist power base to build within the global environmentalist death cult. Until quite recently, there was a common myth that Marx and Engels (founders of Communist thought) had nothing useful to say about the environment. But an examination of historical documents proves this not to be the case. For example, in his 1844 Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, Marx wrote:
Man lives on nature–means that nature is his body, with which he must remain in continuous interchange if he is not to die. That man’s physical and spiritual life is linked to nature means simply that nature is linked to itself, for man is a part of nature.47
Growing nationalism across the world is a response to this threat, but complacency thrives in times of economic progress. As the economy continues to improve, we can expect more EcoMarxists to enter positions of power within the U.N. and other globalist organizations.
Mother Earth: The Religious System of the Antichrist
When we witness to Native Americans and those involved in the New Age Movement, we must emphasize that God did not create “Mother” Earth; therefore, the earth should not be worshipped. Earth-based spirituality is the very antithesis of the world fashioned for us by a loving Creator.48 As James said:
This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish. (James 3:15, ESV)
This global peace plan initiated by the environmentalist death cult will eventually set up the religion of the Antichrist.49 In light of this, we must always remember the warning the Apostle
Paul gave to us in his second letter to the Thessalonians…
Let no one deceive you by any means; for that Day [of Jesus’ Second Coming] will not come unless the falling away [from faith and belief in Jesus] comes first. (2 Thessalonians 2:3, ESV)
It is highly likely we are seeing this great “falling away” today; therefore, Christians must be prepared to answer not only for the hope that is within them, but why we cannot support the global environmentalist death cult popularly known as the “global green agenda.”
- Mooney, James. The Ghost Dance Religion and Wounded Knee (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1896; Mineola, NY: Dover Publications Reprint, 2015), pg. 659.
- Ibid., pg. 843.
- Gobry, Emmanuel-Pascal. “The Death Cult of Environmentalism” The Week Magazine (July 5, 2016), Accessed February 2018. http://theweek.com/articles/633656/death-cult-environmentalism
- Allen, Charlotte. “The Scholars and the Goddess” The Atlantic Magazine (January 2001), Accessed February 2018. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2001/01/the-scholarsand-
- Rubenstein, Murray. “New Religious Movement” Encyclopedia Britannica (2018), Accessed February 2018. https://www.britannica.com/topic/new-religious-movement
- Chief Avol Looking Horse. “Important Message from Keeper of Sacred White Buffalo Calf Pipe” Indian Country Today (September 7, 2017), Accessed February 2018. https://indiancountrymedianetwork.
- Lipka, Michael and Gecewicz, Claire. “More Americans now say they’re spiritual but not religious” Pew Research Center, (September 6, 2017), Accessed February 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/facttank/
- Rockeymoore/Rahkyt, Mark A. “The Gathering of the Rainbow Tribe: New Age Delusions and Rude Awakening” Sacred Space in Time blog (2011), Accessed February 2018, however, apparently the domain is no longer available. https://rahkyt.com/2011/08/11/the-gathering-of-therainbow-tribe-new-age-delusions-and-rude-awakenings/
- “Dakota Access Pipeline protests” Wikiwand (2018), Accessed February 2018. http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Dakota_Access_Pipeline_protests
- “What is Panentheism?” Got Questions, Accessed February 2018. (https://gotquestions.org/panentheism.html)
- Cornell, George L. “The Influence of Native Americans on Modern Conservationists” Environmental Review (Summer, 1985,: Vol. 9, No. 2, Special Issue: American Indian Environmental History), pg. 107.
- Mooney, Op Cit., pg. 659.
- Ibid., pg. 829.
- Ibid., pg. 773-774.
- Ibid., pg. 777.
- Ibid., pg. 813.
- Palma, Bethania. “ ‘This Is Our Ghost Dance.’ Standing Rock Sioux Will Continue Their Dakota Access Pipeline Battle,” Snopes (December 21, 2016), Accessed February 2018. https://www.snopes.
- Toahani, Ron. “Round dance from the celebration at Standing Rock Dec 4 2016” Filmed December 4, 2016 (January 26, 2017), Accessed February 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUaZJMR9iy8
- Jilek, Wolfgang G. “Altered States of Consciousness in North American Ceremonials” Ethos Journal of Psychological Anthropology (Winter 1982) pg. 326-341.
- LaPier, Rosalyn R. “Will Global Warming Change Native American Religious Practices” Indian Country Today (2017), Accessed February 2018. https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/news/native-news/willglobal-warming-change-native-american-religious-practices/
- O’Neill, Brendan. “Environmentalism: the new death cult?” The Guardian (July 3, 2007), Accessed February 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2007/jul/03/
- Hertsgaard, Mark. “Climate Denialism Is Literally Killing Us” The Nation (September 6, 2017), Accessed February 2018. https://www.thenation.com/article/climate-denialism-is-literally-killing-us/)
- White, Richard. “Introduction: American Indians and the Environment” Environmental Review (Summer, 1985; Vol. 9, No. 2, Special Issue: American Indian Environmental History) pg. 101.
- Cornell. Op cit. pg. 106-107.
- “Definition of Culturcide” , (July 14, 2014). Accessed February 2018. http://culturcide.blogspot.com/2014/07/definition-of-culturcide.html
- “Declaration of War Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality” American Indian Cultural Support A.I.C.S. (June 10, 1993), Accessed February 2018. http://www.aics.org/war.html
- Lewis, Orrin. written by mibby529 “Differences between Indian beliefs and New Age” Native American Article Archives, http://www.bigorrin.org/archive25.htm
- Briquette, Kate. “Lakota Warriors Vow to Crush Dirty Rainbow Hippies” The Daily Beast (June 20, 2015), Accessed February 2018. https://www.thedailybeast.com/lakota-warriors-vow-to-crush-dirtyrainbow-hippies
- “Daniel Pinchbeck” Wikipedia (2018), Accessed February 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Pinchbeck
- Pinchbeck, Daniel. Breaking Open the Head: A Psychedelic Journey into the Heart of Contemporary Shamanism (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 2002) pg. 18.
- “Ayahuasca” Wikipedia (2018), Accessed February 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayahuasca
- Pinchbeck, Daniel. 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl (New York, NY:Penguin Group Inc., 2006) pg. 283-284, 320.
- “Daniel Pinchbeck: About the Author” description. Penguin Random House (2018), Accessed February 2018. https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/authors/24010/daniel-pinchbeck
- David, Gary A. “Hopi Prophecy and the End of the Fourth World – Part 1” Ancient Origins (November 2, 2014), Accessed February 2018. http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends-americas/hopi-prophecyand-end-fourth-world-part-1-002280
- Muller, Barbara G. “Robert Muller and the Hopi Indians: Barbara Gaughen Muller” You Tube Interview (Published July 15, 2009), Accessed February 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UlomB6HQFm8
- “Theosophy” Wikipedia (2018), Accessed February 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theosophy
- “Alice Bailey” Wikipedia (2018), Accessed February 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_Bailey)
- Smith, Warren. “Evangelicals and New Agers Together” Lighthouse Trails Research (October 15, 2010), Accessed February 2018. https://www.lighthousetrailsresearch.com/blog/?p=13514)
- Batten, Laura and Robertson, Tricia. “Schweitzer Prizes: 3 to be honored for contributions to music, medicine, humanities” Wilmington Morning Star News (March 17, 1993,), pg. 4A. Accessed February 2018. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=964sAAAAIBAJ&sjid=wRQEAAAAIBAJ&pg=2740%2C841277
- Laos, Nicolas. Methexiology: Philosophical Theology and Theological Philosophy for the Deifi cation of Humanity (Eugene, OR: 2016,PICKWICK Publications, 2016) pg. 33.
- Neusner, Jacob. World Religions in America, Fourth Edition: An Introduction (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2009) pg. 264.
- Muller, Robert. Most of All, They Taught Me Happiness (Garden City,
NY: Image Books, 1985) pg. 81.
- Gasper, Phil. “Karl Marx, radical environmentalist” Socialist Worker (June 4, 2013), Accessed February 2018. https://socialistworker.org/2013/06/04/karl-marxs-environmentalism
- Des Gerlaise, Nanci. Muddy Waters: An Insiders View of North American Native Spirituality (Eureka, MT: Lighthouse Trails Publishing, 2012) pg. 127-129.